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Nephrology (Renal Medicine) is a subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney disease.

A nephrologist is a physician who has been trained in the general specialty of internal medicine and then sub-specialized in the field of nephrology. Because kidney disease affects many other systems of the body, a nephrologist must also have a good grasp on other aspects of internal medicine to prevent and minimise the impact of kidney failure.

Nephrologists are trained to administer haemodialysis and teach patients how to perform peritoneal dialysis. They are also trained to coordinate and manage kidney transplantation.

Nephrology is field of medicine often required specially trained renal nurses and technicians. Allied health workers such as dietitians and social workers are usually required to work closely with doctors and nurses, focusing on helping patients, as well as helping families understand and cope with their loved one's medical issues. Nephrology is a complicated field and requires dedication from all involved to ensure the best in patient care.